South Asia

RSPO Facts and Figures


  • Indonesia is a core palm oil growing, processing, and trading country, as well as a large consumer of palm oil.
  • Indonesia is the world’s largest producer of palm oil and the second largest producer of certified sustainable palm oil (CSPO); 41% of annual production capacity of CSPO comes from Indonesia.
  • It is estimated that approximately 9% of Indonesia’s palm oil output is certified by the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO).
  • Its number 1 and 2 ranked growers by production area are Wilmar International and Sime Darby, which are foreign-owned companies.
  • In 2011, Indonesia had a larger increase in certified production area than Malaysia, and it also had more new RSPO members. New members included two consumer goods manufacturers: PT Macro Natura Kreasi and PT Dua Kuda Indonesia.
  • PT Mikie Oleo Nabati Industri was Indonesia’s first consumer goods manufacturer member.
  • In 2011, pilot field testing of the Indonesia Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO) certification scheme began. This government-initiated scheme was developed to better implement the country’s laws and regulations and will be mandatory for all Indonesian growers by the end of 2014 at the latest.
  • In September 2011, the Indonesian Palm Oil Association (GAPKI) left the RSPO and committed itself to the ISPO process.

Table showing numbers of RSPO members in Indonesia according to membership categoryInformation courtesy of RSPO



  • Malaysia is a core palm oil growing, processing, and trading country.
  • 49% of annual production capacity of CSPO comes from Malaysia – the largest producer of CSPO in the world.
  • It is estimated that approximately 14% of Malaysia’s palm oil output is RSPO certified.
  • In 2011, it added 26 mills and 194,000 ha of newly certified production area.
  • Newer RSPO members include mid-size growers and processors, TDM Plantations on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia and Tian Siang Holdings (which owns about 6,500 ha oil palm in Sabah and four mills nationwide).
  • Consumer goods manufacturer members are Berg + Schmidt (M) Sdn Bhd and Toyochem Specialty Chemical Sdn Bhd.

Table outlining RSPO member numbers in Malaysia according to membership categoryInformation courtesy of RSPO


  • Thailand is an important palm oil growing, processing, and trading country.
  • It is a distant third ranked producer of palm oil in the world.
  • Thailand’s palm oil is largely grown by smallholder farmers; smallholders constitute approximately 98% of the country’s growers.
  • At the end of 2011, RSPO together with the Thai Oil Palm and Palm Oil Association, Palm Oil Crushing Mill Association, Thai Biodiesel Producer Association, and Palm Oil Refinery Association announced the approval and publication of the National Interpretation (NI) of the RSPO in Thailand.
  • The approved Thai NI allows the Thai Palm Oil Industry to certify palm oil as sustainable under the RSPO certification scheme. The Thai NI development process was supported by GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für international Zusammenarbeit) and funded by the German Federal Ministry of Environment.
  • Thailand has two grower members of RSPO: United Palm Oil Industry PCL and Univanich Palm Oil PCL.
  • A new member, the Natural Palm Group Co. Ltd, owns a refinery in southern Thailand with a capacity of 600 metric tonnes per day.

Table showing RSPO member numbers in Thailand according to membership categoryInformation courtesy of RSPO



  • India is the world’s largest importer of palm oil. In 2010–2011, its palm oil imports amounted to approximately 7 million tonnes.
  • About 95% of the palm oil used in India is sold as edible oil to domestic and commercial consumers.
  • The market for vegetable oils in India is very much influenced by the government’s domestic import tariff policies.
  • The Indian market is highly price sensitive. There is little demand for sustainable palm oil and unwillingness to pay a higher premium for CSPO when there are cheaper alternatives available.
  • RSPO membership in India has increased from just four members in 2011 (all in the processors and traders category) to 12 members in the processors and traders category and one member in the consumer goods manufacturers category.

Table showing RSPO member numbers in India according to membership categoryInformation courtesy of RSPO

We are currently working on more content for this page and hope to upload it soon.

For more information about the palm oil industry in Southeast Asia and India., see the useful weblinks and publications sections.

The case studies section includes a diverse range of contributions from different stakeholder groups, including an interview with the conservationist Rhett Butler of, who discusses palm oil legislation and conservation policies in Southeast Asia and compares them with those of Brazil. In another interview, the Indonesian palm oil company Musim Mas discuss the biogas facility that they have established at one of their mills to capture methane emissions and generate electricity.

We are always looking for new and interesting sources of information. If you would like to contribute a report, article, weblink, or case study to this section, please email us at or use the “Contact us” form on the left hand side of this page.

Oil Palm Fruit in Indonesia

Harvesting oil palm fruit in Indonesia © Michal Zrust